The Deming Cycle (PDCA)
Dynamic Model for TQM, Health Maintenance, Improving Your Office,
Personal Improvement, and so much more!
The PDCA (or Deming Cycle) was originally conceived by Walter
Shewhart in the 1930's, and later adopted by W. Edwards Deming.
The model provides a framework for the improvement of a process
or system. It can be used to guide the entire improvement project,
or to develop specific projects once target improvement areas
have been identified.
The Deming Cycle is designed to be used as a dynamic model.
The completion of one turn of the cycle flows into the beginning
of the next. Following in the spirit of continuous quality improvement,
the process can always be reanalyzed and a new test of change
can begin. This continual cycle of change is represented in
the "Ramp of Improvement". Using what we learn
in one PDCA trial, we can begin another, more complex trial.
The Ramp of Improvement
This is a schematic representation of the use of the PDCA
cycle in the improvement process. As each full PDCA cycle comes
to completion, a new and slightly more complex project can be
undertaken. This rolling over feature is integral to the continual
See "Related Information" (above)
Implementing Deming, Volume 4: What To Do Instead of Managing
by Objectives. This program begins with the 14 Points and
discusses in detail how to use the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle
as the logic for on-going improvement.
Stankard, Martin F. "Management Systems and Organizational
Performance: The Search for Excellence Beyond ISO9000"
2002 Quorum Books, Westport, CT
Deming, W.E. "The New Economics: for Industry, Government,
Education" 1994 MIT CAES, Cambridge, MA